Gamal Badawy is a graduate of Birmingham University,UK, in 2003. Currently, he is an Associate Professor of Anatomy and Embryology in the Department Zoology, Faculty of Science, at Menoufiya University, Egypt. He has published more than 20 papers and abstracts in reputed journals. He is serving as a Reviewer for six journals.
Objective: To investigate the possible ameliorative effect of crude water extract of Morus alba leaves on developmental defects of cervical spinal cord in 14 days rat pups maternally subjected to diabetes and/or Al intoxication. Materials & Methods: Seventy fertile male and virgin female rats were used. The pregnant rats were arranged into seven groups and their pups were sacrificed at 14 days old. Cervical spinal cord was separated and subjected for light and TEM examination as well as DNA fragmentation. Results: At the histological level, the central canal appeared congested with marked hyperplasia of their ependymal cells in pups of diabetic mother. Edematous lesions were detected within neuronal cells of the grey matter. Different cytopathological alterations including vacuolation, pyknosis and chromatolysis of neuronal cells were detected. However, pups maternally diabetic and received Morus alba extract showed marked amelioration of the histological structure including arrangement of ependymal cells and improvement of multipolar motor neuronal cells. At TEM level, an increase of nuclei with clumped chromatin material and irregular nuclear envelope was evident. The RER become vesiculated and disrupted throughout the cytoplasm. The mitochondria appeared swollen and degenerated. White matter possessed variable reduction of demyelinated axons. Vacuolation of myelinated axons and edematous lesions were detected. Highest amelioration was detected in those of diabetic mother treated with Morus alba comparing with the other experimental groups. Neuronal cells of both diabetic and/or Al intoxicated mothers possessed genomic DNA fragmentation. Highest incidence of genomic DNA fragmentation was markedly increased in pups of Al intoxicated mothers alone or in combination with diabetes. On the other hand pups of mother received Morus alba besides either Al intoxication and/or diabetes revealed resolution of DNA damage. Conclusion: The present study proved that Morus alba leaves extract has an ameliorative effect against developmental defects of cervical spinal cord.
John Gleisner completed his Ph.D. in Biochemistry from the University of Minnesota and postdoctoral studies from the University of Iowa. His first career following graduate school was at the Virginia Mason Research Center in Seattle, WA. He later moved into industry where he is currently the Science Director at ARKRAY Factory in USA. Gleisner has spent nearly 30 years working on blood glucose system development and support. He has authored over 25 publications and holds 11 US patents.
Background: Blood Glucose Monitoring Systems (BGMS) are a critical tool used in the management of diabetes. The gold standard in measuring the accuracy of BGMS in the testing of diabetes mellitus is known as the ISO 15197:2013. The level of accuracy of the BGMS results in the ability to regulate an individual’s blood glucose levels. According to the ISO 15197:2013, system accuracy performance criteria is defined as 95% of the BGMS results falling within ±15mg/dL of the reference analyzer results with glucose concentrations less than 100 mg/dL. For samples with glucose concentrations ≥100 mg/dL, 95% of the BGMS results need to be within 15% of the reference analyzer results. Furthermore 99% of all results are required to be in the A and B zones of the Consensus Error Grid. Purpose: The objective of this study is to demonstrate whether the GLUCOCARD® Shine aligns with the ISO 15197:2013 BGMS accuracy performance requirements. Methods: Two lots of GLUCOCARD® Shine blood glucose test strips were evaluated for performance and bias comparison (n=240 data points). The samples were collected from the fingertip of confirmed diabetics by trained personnel at the ARKAY Factory, Inc. in Minneapolis, MN. Reference values were obtained using the YSI Model 2300 Analyzer. The data was analyzed using the minimum system accuracy performance criteria published in the ISO 15197:2013. Results: The results showed that 100% of the <100 mg/dL samples (13/13) were within ±15 mg/dL thus meeting the 95% accuracy criteria. 99.1% of the ≥ 100mg/dL samples (n=225/227) fell within the pre-determined 15% which met the 95% performance criteria. All data were within the A and B zones of the Consensus Error Grid. The overall bias was –2.7% demonstrating strong agreement between the GLUCOCARD® Shine and YSI reference analyzer results, which is considered the gold standard glucose assay for BGMS studies. The correlation coefficient (r) = 0.98 demonstrates a strong linear relationship between the YSI reference method and the meter results. Conclusion: The data acquired on the GLUCOCARD® Shine met the ISO 15197:2013 system accuracy performance criteria, the most stringent BGMS requirement in the monitoring of diabetes mellitus.